Gray countries with texture denote areas of future engagement.


Turning resource competition into opportunities

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  • Quick Facts:


    752,331 hectares (2,904 sq. mi.)

  • Key Landmarks

    1. Volcanoes National Park (Rwanda)
    2. Bwindi Impenetrable Forest (Uganda)
    3. Mgahinga Gorilla National Park (Uganda)
    4. Virunga National Park (Democratic Republic of Congo)


Volcanic mountains and forests in the Virunga Landscape shelter the world’s remaining population of wild mountain gorillas. Spread over the borders of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Rwanda, and Uganda, this astoundingly rich ecosystem is home to chimpanzees, golden monkeys, and forest elephants as well as an array of birds, reptiles, and amphibians.

Tags: DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, West/Central Africa


Wildlife is blind to borders.

Habitat for endangered species in the Virunga Landscape extends beyond the boundaries of national parks and over the borders of DRC, Rwanda, and Uganda. For people living nearby, wildlife poses unique challenges. The area is one of the most densely populated in rural Africa, and most families depend on small-scale agriculture to survive. With farms stretching up to the borders of the parks, wildlife raid local fields to feast. Destroying crops puts the animals in danger of being wounded or killed in retaliation.  

Gorillas caught in the middle.

Endangered mountain gorillas are particularly vulnerable when they come into contact with humans. Not only are they threatened by injury (from getting caught in snares set up for antelopes) and poaching, but they are also susceptible to human diseases, from which they have limited natural defense. High-population density in the Virunga Landscape means that mountain gorillas have ample opportunities to meet people—by leaving the park themselves or by encountering humans who enter the park in search of water and other resources.


Our solutions to the challenges in the Virunga Landscape:

  • Develop the International Gorilla Conservation Programme: a successful collaboration.

    The International Gorilla Conservation Programme (IGCP) is a powerful partnership of three international conservation organizations: African Wildlife Foundation, Fauna and Flora International, and WWF. The coalition works directly with communities on the ground and carries out mountain gorilla monitoring and conservation programs.

  • Build eco-lodges that invest in communities and conservation.

    AWF works with local people and private-sector partners to design and construct community-owned tourist lodges that benefit the people who share their backyards with mountain gorillas and other wildlife. Sabyinyo Silverback Lodge in Rwanda and Clouds Mountain Gorilla Lodge in Uganda have generated substantial income for local communities through employment, bed-night fees, and tourists’ purchase of local products—funds that communities use to improve roads and housing and to implement local conservation initiatives.

  • Protect farms, forests, and all their inhabitants.

    As part of an IGCP program to collaborate across borders, AWF has supported projects that mitigate the conflict between wildlife and local people. With help from IGCP, communities from DRC, Rwanda, and Uganda worked together to built a stone wall around Rwanda’s Volcanoes National Park that would keep buffalo and elephants from crossing into fields and raiding crops. And, to keep people from entering the landscapes’s national parks to fetch water, IGCP helped local communities construct household and communal tanks to harvest and store rainwater.

  • Take part in conservation efforts that allow gorillas to rebound.

    As a result of collaborative conservation efforts, the mountain gorilla population has grown in recent decades. With a minimum of 400 gorillas living in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and 480 in the Virunga Massif, the world mountain gorilla population is at 880 as of 2011—making the mountain gorilla the only great ape in Africa whose population continues to increase.


Explore some of our related projects. 

  • Sabyinyo Silverback Lodge Craig R. Sholley
    Sabyinyo Silverback Lodge
    International tourism put to work for mountain gorillas

    Mountain gorillas are in danger of extinction.

    In the Virunga Mountains of Rwanda, tourists pay top dollar for the privilege of tracking mountain gorillas. Mountain...

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  • Mountain Gorilla Rangers Mohammed Hashim
    Mountain Gorilla Rangers
    Gorillas face peril

    Fewer than 900 mountain gorillas exist today.

    Mountain gorillas remain exceedingly endangered and live in only one area—the Virunga Heartland. This landscape spans the...

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    All Projects

  • Student Anna Behm_Masozera IGCP
    Student Gorilla Trek
    Facilitating conservation education through interaction with wildlife

    Wildlife permits are too expensive for native Rwandans. 

    Despite living so close to the magnificent mountain gorilla, many Rwandans lack the ability to fully engage...

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    All Projects

  • Bwindi Census Anna Behm Masozera IGCP
    Bwindi Mountain Gorilla Census
    Cataloging the critically endangered mountain gorilla

    Accurate population numbers are needed for gorilla conservation. 

    The Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda is home to approximately half of the world’s remaining...

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  • Uganda Biodiversity Through Tourism AWF
    Uganda Tourism for Biodiversity
    Improving tourism and biodiversity across the country

    Uganda has a wide range of tourism assets. 

    Uganda boasts a wealth of biodiversity that could easily be used for tourism purposes. Uganda’s economy today relies...

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    All Projects

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